It is time for real, substantive reform.
The same indefinite non-openness applies to all documents under international security obligations, if the release might still affect Finnish foreign relations negatively.
Yet, the information concerning activities of judicial branch and legislators is not accessible. Targeted mobile shutdowns also leave fixed-line networks accessible for businesses and government institutions, which can help blunt the negative economic impact of the restrictions.
State censors target mobile connectivity Network shutdowns—defined by Freedom House as intentional restrictions on connectivity for fixed-line internet networks, mobile data networks, or both—have occurred in a growing number of countries in recent years. Excludes from such definition: In a testament to the success of this strategy, the protocol that allows Instagram users to stream video was briefly blocked, and when it became accessible again, the hard-line candidate Ebrahim Raisi embraced the platform as well.
Upon receipt of such notice, the commission shall serve upon all parties, by certified or registered mail, a copy of such notice together with any other notice or order of such commission.
Discuss February Access to Public Administration Files Act of is a Danish act passed by the Folketing concerning public access to governmental records. A public agency of a political subdivision shall be presumed to have given proper notice of any meeting, if a notice is timely sent under the provisions of said Freedom of Information Act by first-class mail to the address indicated in the request of the person requesting the same.
Instead, the most repressive states are moving toward a two-tier system that would authorize certain VPNs for approved uses and ban the rest. Showcasing increasingly bold political motivations, hackers also infiltrated the servers of the U.
Often this allows them to bypass regulations specific to traditional broadcasters, and to reach new audiences.
Section revises reporting requirements regarding electronic surveillance, physical searches, and tangible things to include the House Judiciary Committee as a recipient of such reports.
Many of them conduct automated tasks for commercial purposes. No law enforcement agency shall redact any record of the arrest of any person, except for 1 the identity of witnesses, 2 specific information about the commission of a crime, the disclosure of which the law enforcement agency reasonably believes may prejudice a pending prosecution or a prospective law enforcement action, or 3 any information that a judicial authority has ordered to be sealed from public inspection or disclosure.
However, the authority is liable to assist the person with its document registers and indices in this task. During such preliminary hearing, the commission shall take evidence and receive testimony from the parties.
As a result, the intelligence community now faces a trust deficit with the American public that compromises its ability to do its job. Enhanced National Security Provisions[ edit ] Section establishes procedures for a lawfully authorized targeting of a non-U.
Public information; agency rules, opinions, orders, records, and proceedings a Each agency shall make available to the public information as follows: Such petition shall be sworn under penalty of false statement, as provided in section 53ab, and shall detail the conduct which the agency alleges demonstrates a vexatious history of requests, including, but not limited to: Similarly in the Gambianetworks were shut down on the eve of a presidential election in Decemberthough in a surprise victory for democracy, the tactic failed to secure the reelection of authoritarian incumbent Yahya Jammeh, who had been in power for nearly 22 years.
However, in each case the justification for the deletion shall be explained fully in writing, and the extent of such deletion shall be indicated on the portion of the record which is made available or published, unless including that indication would harm an interest protected by the exemption in subsection b under which the deletion is made.
Section directs the Attorney General to adopt procedures for imposed nondisclosure requirements, including requirements under the National Security Act ofto be reviewed at appropriate intervals and terminated if facts no longer support nondisclosure.
Exceptions to the basic principle could only be made by law, or by an executive order for specific enumerated reasons such as national security. Notwithstanding any provision of this subsection or subsection b of section to the contrary, if an employee's collective bargaining representative files a written objection under this subsection, the employee may subsequently approve the disclosure of the records requested by submitting a written notice to the public agency.
There are also a number of limitations on the release of electronic documents designed for the protection of the individual privacy. While the online environment in the United States remained vibrant and diverse, the prevalence of disinformation and hyperpartisan content had a significant impact.
In Egypt, the authorities blocked over websites, including that of the Qatar-based news network Al-Jazeera, the independent news site Mada Masr, and the blogging platform Medium.
The Department of Administrative Services shall adopt written guidelines to assist municipal agencies in carrying out the purposes of this subsection. Section Directs the Administrative Office of the U. Each agency shall also maintain and make available for public inspection in an electronic format current indexes providing identifying information for the public as to any matter issued, adopted, or promulgated after July 4,and required by this paragraph to be made available or published.
As used in this article, unless the context requires otherwise. Others, like Iran when it blocked Instagram, used more ad hoc methods to disrupt live streaming when it was already in progress.
An agency may require a person requesting lists of names and addresses to provide a written certification that such person will not use such lists of names and addresses for solicitation or fund-raising purposes and will not sell, give or otherwise make available such lists of names and addresses to any other person for the purpose of allowing that person to use such lists of names and addresses for solicitation or fund-raising purposes.
A public agency of the state shall be presumed to have given timely and proper notice of any meeting as provided for in said Freedom of Information Act if notice is given in the Connecticut Law Journal or a Legislative Bulletin. This weakness of the law was removed when the law was revised in the s.
Section directs the Attorney General to ensure that appropriate privacy procedures are in place for the collection, retention, and use of nonpublicly available information concerning U. Prevention of Nuclear Terrorism[ edit ] Section prohibits anyone, knowingly, unlawfully, and with intent to cause death, serious bodily injury, or substantial damage to property or the environment, from: Permits FISA courts to appoint an individual or organization to serve as amicus curiae in other instances, including to provide technical expertise.
A public agency may establish a fee structure not to exceed twenty dollars for an individual to pay each time the individual copies records at the agency with a hand-held scanner.
Upon a grant of such petition, the commission may provide appropriate relief commensurate with the vexatious conduct, including, but not limited to, an order that the agency need not comply with future requests from the vexatious requester for a specified period of time, but not to exceed one year.
The Freedom of Information Commission's mission is to administer and enforce the provisions of the Connecticut Freedom of Information Act, and to thereby ensure citizen access to the records and meetings of public agencies in the State of Connecticut. The annual Report to Congress on International Religious Freedom – the International Religious Freedom Report – describes the status of religious freedom in every country.
Changes to legislation: Freedom of Information Act is up to date with all changes known to be in force on or before 31 August There are changes that may be brought into force at a future date.
FOI Act Abstract: THE CONNECTICUT FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT CMurphy Ali, Alaaeldin 3 2 TZ TZ TZ 1 State of Connecticut false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE THE CONNECTICUT FREEDOM OFINFORMATION ACTAS CODIFIED IN CHAPTER 14. Governments around the world are dramatically increasing their efforts to manipulate information on social media, threatening the notion of the internet as a liberating technology, according to Freedom on the Netthe latest edition of the annual country-by-country assessment of online freedom.
The annual Report to Congress on International Religious Freedom – the International Religious Freedom Report – describes the status of religious freedom in every country.A report on the freedom of information act